Alcyonidiopsis

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Last update of this page: 21. Dec.. 2016

Alcyonidiopsis MASSALONGO, 1856

Type ichnospecies:
Alcyonidiopsis longobardiae MASSALONGO, 1856 (subsequent designation by ANDREWS, 1955: p. 102).

Diagnosis:
Simple or rarely branching tubular burrows filled with faecal pellets (UCHMAN, 1995: p. 13).

Derivation of name:
Probably after the bryozoan (’alga’ÇŁ) Alcyonidium LAMOUROUX, 1813 (cf. MASSALONGO, 1856: pp. 47-48).

Remarks:
Originally diagnosed as narrow, linear piece of a plant filled with sporangia by MASSALONGO (1856) but recognised as pellet-filled tube by H─NTZSCHEL (1965) and put in synonymy with Tomaculum GROOM, 1902. Later though, H─NTZSCHEL (1975) put the ichnogenus in synonymy with Granularia (POLETAEVA, ?1936 [reference not found!], not Granularia POMEL, 1849!). RICHTER & RICHTER (1939a) described Syncoprulus pharmaceus, but decided shortly after (1939b) that the ichnogenus Syncoprulus is a younger synonym of Tomaculum GROOM, 1902Tomaculum GROOM, 1902 is now regarded as faecal pellets deposited in strings on the sediment surface (EISERHARDT et al., 2001). CHAMBERLAIN (1977) regarded the ichnospecies Syncoprulus pharmaceus RICHTER & RICHTER, 1939 as belonging to Alcyonidiopsis. CHAMBERLAIN (1977) also synonymised Alcyonidiopsis bononiae MASSALONGO, 1856 (p. 49; pl. 7 figs. 3, 4) with A. longobardiae MASSALONGO, 1856.

Environment:
Mainly marine, but a few non-marine occurences have been reported (METZ, 2015).

Known Stratigraphic Range: 
Ordovician - Miocene (e.g., CHAMBERLAIN, 1977; UCHMAN, 1995)

Known ichnospecies:

 

Detailed information for each ichnospecies

  • Alcyonidiopsis laurencia SORDELLI, 1873
    • Synonymy:

      *

      1873

      Alcyonidiopsis laurencia

      - SORDELLI, p. 366-367; fig. B.

       

      1856

      Alcyonidiopsis bononiae

      - MASSALONGO, p. 49; pl. 7 figs. 3, 4.

       

      1977

      Alcyonidiopsis longobardiae

      - CHAMBERLAIN, p. 7; figs. 2u; 3A, D, F, ?I, ?J.

    • Diagnosis: Frondi subcilindriche, larghe da 2-3 millim., variamente curvate, semplici o pi¨ spesso ramificate; rami brevi, talvolta clavati, sempre ottusi all'estremitÓ libera. Superficie tutta coperta da verruche irregolari, grosse mill. 0,5-0,7, subrotonde, sessili (SORDELLI, 1873: p. 366) [= Subcylindrical twigs, 2-3 mm wide, variously curved, simple or more often branched; branches short, sometimes clavate, ends of branches always obtuse. Surface completely covered with irregular warts, 0.5-0.7 mm large/in diameter?, subspherical, sessile]. Emended diagnosis: Subcylindrical branches, variously curved, simple or more often branched; branches short, sometimes clavate, ends of branches always obtuse. BUrrows stuffed with subspherical pellets.
    • Orientation: As full relief/endichnion.
    • Morphological category (KNAUST, 2012): Burrow, (sub)horizontal, unbranched, cylindrical/ridge-like, active filling, without lining/mantle.
    • Ethological category: Fodinichnia.
    • Environment: Abc.
    • Derivation of name: Named after the Recent red alga Laurencia papillosa GREVILLE, 1830 (today regarded as synonym of Palisada perforata NAM, 2007).
    • Types: Staatliches Museum f├╝r Naturkunde Stuttgart, Germany; Holotype Inventary-No.: SMNS 64849/1; Paratypes┬  Inventary-No.: SMNS 64849/2 to SMNS 64849/11.
    • Type locality: Abc.
    • Type horizon: Abc.
    • Geographical distribution: Abc.
    • Remarks: CHAMBERLAIN (1977) stated absolute size in his emended diagnosis for A. longobardiae, e.g. for tube diameter and pellet length. These have been deleted in the above diagnosis as they do not constitute a valid ichnotaxobasis. He mentioned 2-7 mm as burrow diameter and 0.2-0.5 mm for pellet length.

Alcyonidiopsis laurencia SORDELLI, 1873

 

  • Alcyonidiopsis longobardiae MASSALONGO, 1856
    • Synonymy:

      *

      1856

      Alcyonidiopsis longobardiae

      - MASSALONGO, p. 47-48; pl. 7 figs. 1, 2.

       

      1856

      Alcyonidiopsis bononiae

      - MASSALONGO, p. 49; pl. 7 figs. 3, 4.

       

      1977

      Alcyonidiopsis longobardiae

      - CHAMBERLAIN, p. 7; figs. 2u; 3A, D, F, ?I, ?J.

    • Diagnosis: Fronde lineari crassiuscula, granulis ovoideo-ellipticis creberrimis subinconspicuis, mucilagine densa obvolutis, foeta (MASSALONGO, 1856: p. 47-48) [= With frond linear, moderately thick; granules ovoid-elliptical, crowded, rather inconspicuous; mucilage dense, wrapped around; stinking. Translated by Andrew K. Rindsberg, 2016]. Emended diagnosis (after CHAMBERLAIN, 1977, p. 7; see also Remarks below): Linear and sinuous inclined and horizontal burrows, seldom branching and filled with relatively small ovoid pellets.
    • Orientation: As full relief/endichnion.
    • Morphological category (KNAUST, 2012): Burrow, (sub)horizontal, unbranched, cylindrical/ridge-like, active filling, without lining/mantle.
    • Ethological category: Fodinichnia.
    • Environment: Abc.
    • Derivation of name: Abc.
    • Types: Staatliches Museum f├╝r Naturkunde Stuttgart, Germany; Holotype Inventary-No.: SMNS 64849/1; Paratypes┬  Inventary-No.: SMNS 64849/2 to SMNS 64849/11.
    • Type locality: Abc.
    • Type horizon: Abc.
    • Geographical distribution: Abc.
    • Remarks: CHAMBERLAIN (1977) stated absolute size in his emended diagnosis for A. longobardiae, e.g. for tube diameter and pellet length. These have been deleted in the above diagnosis as they do not constitute a valid ichnotaxobasis. He mentioned 2-7 mm as burrow diameter and 0.2-0.5 mm for pellet length. Accordig to MASSALONGO (1856), A. longobardiae differs from A. bononiae in having relatively dense, numerous granules in a well-defined casing. (Diagnosis for A. bononiae (MASSALONGO, 1856: p. 49): Fronde lineari plus minusve lata tenuissima, granulis ovoideo-ellipticis angulosisve raris, mucilagine fere obsoleta obvolutis, foeta.  [= With frond more or less linear, wide, very thin; granules ovoid-elliptical or angular, sparse; mucilage almost rudimentary, wrapped around; stinking; Translated by Andrew K. Rindsberg, 2016]. CHAMBERLAIN (1977) did probably not consider this as significant enough to keep A. bononiae as separate species.

Alcyonidiopsis longobardiae MASSALONGO, 1856

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